It is hard to predict how science is going to turn out, and if it isreally good science it is impossible to predict. If the things to be found are actually new, they are by definitionunknown in advance. You cannot make choices in this matter. You either havescience or you don’t, and if you have it you are obliged to accept thesurprising and disturbing pieces of information, along with the neat andpromptly useful bits.
The only solid piece of scientific truth about which I feel totallyconfident is that we are profoundly ignorant about nature. Indeed, I regardthis as the major discovery of the past hundred years of biology. It is, in itsway, an illumination piece of news. It would have amazed the brightest minds ofthe 18th century Enlightenment (启蒙运动) to be told by any of us how little we know and how bewilderingseems the way ahead. It is this sudden confrontation with the depth and scopeof ignorance that represents the most significant contribution of the 20thcentury science to the human intellect. In earlier times, we either pretended tounderstand how things worked or ignored the problem, or simply made up storiesto fill the gaps. Now that we have begun exploring in earnest, we are gettingglimpses of how huge the questions are, and how far from being answered.Because of this, we are depressed. It is not so bad being ignorant if you aretotally ignorant; the hard thing is knowing in some detail the reality ofignorance, the worst spots and here and there the not-so-bad spots, but no truelight at the end of the tunnel nor even any tunnels that can yet be trusted.
But we are making a beginning, and there ought to be somesatisfaction. There are probably no questions we can think up that can’t beanswered, sooner or later, including even the matter of consciousness. To besure, there may well be questions we can’t think up, ever, and therefore limitsto the reach of human intellect, but that is another matter. Within our limits,we should be able to work our way through to all our answers, if we keep at itlong enough, and pay attention.
1. According to the author, really goodscience ________.
A.would surprise the brightest minds of the 18th century Enlightenment
B. will produce results whichcannot be foreseen
C.will help people to make the right choice in advance
D.will bring about disturbing results
2. It can be inferred from the passage thatscientists of the 18th century ________.
A. thought that they knew agreat deal and could solve most problems of science
B.were afraid of facing up to the realities of scientific research
C.knew that they were ignorant and wanted to know more about nature
D.did more harm than good in promoting man’s understanding of nature
3. Which of the following statements is NOTtrue of scientists in earlier times?
A.They invented false theories to explain things they didn’t understand.
B.They falsely claimed to know all about nature.
C. They did not believe inresults from scientific observation.
D.They paid little attention to the problems they didn’t understand.
4. What is the author’s attitude towardsscience?
A.He is depressed because of the ignorance of scientists.
B.He is doubtful because of the enormous difficulties confronting it.
C. He is confident though he isaware of the enormous difficulties confronting it.
D.He is delighted because of the illuminating scientific findings.
5. The author believes that ________.
A. man can find solutions towhatever questions concerning nature he can think up
B.man can not solve all the problems he can think up because of the limits ofhuman intellect
C.sooner or later man can think up all the questions concerning nature and answerthem
D.questions concerning consciousness are outside the scope of scientific research
in advance 预先
illumination n. 阐释
confrontation n. 对抗
enlightenment n. 启迪，教化
face up to 勇敢地面对
1.B 【解析】细节事实题。题意：根据作者的意图，真正好的科学是……。由第一段的“It is hard to predict how science is going to turn out, and if it isreally good science it is impossible to predict. 很难预测科学将要带来的结果是什么，真正的好的科学更不可能预测其结果。”，可知答案选B“会产生无法预见的后果”。
2.A 【解析】推理判断题。题意：从文章可推理 18 世纪的科学家是……。由第二段的“It would have amazed the brightest minds of the18th century Enlightenment (启蒙运动) to be told by any of us how little we know and howbewildering seems the way ahead. 18世纪启蒙运动的精英们如果从我们口中得知，我们其实所知甚少，前途迷乱，定会非常吃惊。”，可知18 世纪的科学家认为他们知道的很多，由此就判断A“认为他们知道的很多，而且能够解决科学中的大部分问题”正确符合题意；C“认为他们是无知的，而且想更多地了解大自然”与文意相反；B“害怕面临科学研究的实际问题”和D“更多的是损害而不是帮助增加人类了解大自然”没有提到。因此答案选A。
3.C 【解析】细节判断题。题意：下面哪项关于早期科学家的陈述是不对的？由“In earlier times, we either pretended tounderstand how things worked or ignored the problem, or simply made up storiesto fill the gaps. 早些时候，我们要么就假装了解事物的运作过程，要么就忽视这一问题，要么简单地编造来搪塞了事。”可知A、B和D正确。C“他们不相信科学观察的结果”并未提到，因此答案选C。
4.C 【解析】推理判断题。题意：下面哪项是作者对科学的态度?最后一段可判断作者对科学的态度是乐观有信心的，尤其是第一句“But we are making a beginning, and there ought to be somesatisfaction. 但我们毕竟有了开始，而且还比较令人满意。”，因此答案选C“虽然他清楚面临着大量的困难却仍然充满信心”。
5.A 【解析】细节事实题。题意：作者相信……。由最后一段“There are probably no questions we can think upthat can’t be answered, sooner or later, including even the matter ofconsciousness. 或许，我们所想得到的问题迟早都能找到答案，甚至包括意识本身。”，可知A“人类想到的关于自然界的任何问题，都能够找到解决方案”正确；同时说明D“有关意识方面的问题不属于科学研究范畴”错误。B“由于人类智慧的局限性而不能解决人们能想到的有关自然界的一切问题”和C“迟早人类会想出有关自然界的一切问题并能够解决它们”偷换概念。因此答案选A。
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